Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, networked device, or network. While most cybercrimes are carried out in order to generate profit for the cybercriminals, some cybercrimes are carried out against computers or devices directly to damage or disable them, while others use computers or networks to spread malware, illegal information, images, or other materials. Some cybercrimes do both — i.e., target computers to infect them with a computer virus, which is then spread to other machines and, sometimes, entire networks.
A primary effect of cybercrime is financial; cybercrime can include many different types of profit-driven criminal activity, including ransomware attacks, email and internet fraud, and identity fraud, as well as attempts to steal financial accounts, credit cards, or other payment card information. Cybercriminals may also target an individual’s private information, as well as corporate data for theft and resale.
Cyber Crime in India at a Glance
Cyberspace is a fast-growing area for crime, transcending national boundaries and assuming a global proportion. A computer or a mobile telephone with access to the Internet that offers a wide array of tools, some of which may be illegal to use and a bit of technical expertise is what it takes to perpetrate a crime in relative obscurity and from remote areas.
Experts have defined cyberspace as a global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.
As people become more and more socially and economically dependent on Internet-connected computers and e-governance — where a lot of government business and public services are transacted online, including e-banking, e-payments, e-commerce, etc. — grows, especially in India, prospective targets for cyber-crime assume a mammoth scale. The numbers say it all.
A total of over 3.17 lakh cybercrimes and 5,771 FIRs were registered online through a centralized portal in the last 18 months — a sizeable number of them in Maharashtra and Karnataka.
As per the data maintained, since its inception 3,17,439 cybercrime incidents and 5,771 FIRs have been registered up to February 28, 2021, in the country which includes, 21,562 cybercrime incidents and 87 FIRs in Karnataka and 50,806 cybercrime incidents, and 534 FIRs in Maharashtra. More than one in two Indian adults (59%) experienced cybercrime in the last 12 months, as seven in 10 Indian adults (among those surveyed) believed that remote work has made it much easier for hackers and cybercriminals to take advantage of them, a new report revealed.
The NCRB data also shows that Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka were the top three states, respectively, in registering cyber-crimes. The regional states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh were lower in the pecking order.
How cybersecurity products and services are expected to pan out
The study estimates that the market for cybersecurity products in India will grow at a higher rate than that for services. The existing portfolio of cyber spending will change with products becoming dominant, as organizations invest more in products powered by specialized technologies. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) applications are being embedded into the cyber suite of offerings—especially in security intelligence, detection and response (IDR), endpoint security, and security testing.
The key use cases stem from the ability to use predictive analytics and heuristics in drawing quick statistical inferences, thereby helping in detecting and lessening threats with an optimized number of resources and savings. A natural outcome of such developments is the emergence of products and platforms specializing in these areas.
While the product’s market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 16.9% over three years and reach US$1.64 billion by 2022, the market for cybersecurity services will grow to US$1.41 billion by 2022, at a CAGR 14.2%.
Global Cyber Crime & Attacks at a Glance
The cybersecurity industry is rapidly growing every day. Although more resources are being deployed to counter cyber-attacks, the nature of the industry still has a long way to go before we can, as a whole, catch up with these threats. Cyber-crime or computer crime can be divided into two categories: the first comprises crimes that target computers directly such as viruses, attacks, and malware; the second focuses on online crime that uses computer networks or devices as means to perform fraud and identity theft through social engineering as well as cyberbullying, cyberstalking and cyber warfare.
Data breaches and their consequences have also had profound effects on consumers with personal information and credit details being stolen. The biggest online data breach compromised more than 130 million user accounts. Online brands with the highest chance of being targeted by phishing attacks include online payment provider Paypal and online auction house eBay, as well as numerous online service providers that require personal identification as well as payment information.
With the ubiquity of the internet, increased online usage, and the spread of social network usage throughout all age groups, cyberbullying and cyberstalking have become increasingly common, especially among teenagers. Cyberbullying is defined as the harming or harassing of other people in a deliberate, repeated, and hostile manner, including cyber dating abuse within relationships.
- Every 32 seconds, a hacker attacks someone online;
- 43% of cyber-attacks target small businesses;
- The global average cost of a data breach is US$3.9 million across SMBs;
- Some breaches have been known to cost US$4 billion;
- The average cost of a ransomware attack on businesses is US$133,000;
- Since COVID-19, the US FBI reported a 300% increase in reported cybercrimes;
- More than 93% of healthcare organizations have experienced a data breach over the past three years;
- Approximately US$6 trillion is expected to be spent globally on cybersecurity by 2021;
- Connected IoT devices will reach 75 billion by 2025;
- Unfilled cyber security jobs worldwide will reach over 4 million by 2021;
- 95% of cybersecurity breaches are due to human error;
- More than 77% of organizations do not have a Cyber Security Incident Response plan;
- 92% of malware is delivered by email;
Covid-19 may have been rightly hogging the global headlines so far in 2020, but while global lockdown may have been good news for online retailers and those able to work from home, that invariably means it has also been a lucrative period for cybercriminals.
More online transactions mean more opportunities to hack credit card data, and people working remotely has opened up new ways for criminals to target both individuals and organizations – including healthcare companies battling to contain the virus and save lives. With the world facing a global recession and millions losing their jobs, these are desperate times that call for serious measures to tackle cybercrime.
Global Cyber Security Market Size
The global cybersecurity market size was valued at US$156.5 billion in 2019 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.0% from 2020 to 2027. Cybersecurity and defense against online threats undertake greater significance in today’s digital-changing landscape. It has become vital amid organizations due to rapidly increasing frauds, cybercrimes, risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Disruptive and emerging technologies in banking, retail, information technology, defense, and manufacturing sectors have offered new capabilities, facilitated automation, and offered ease of working in the recent past. However, these technologies have also emerged as a potent factor in the development of the global threat landscape of exploits, vulnerabilities, and malware. The emerging threat landscape is observed with an increased number of cybercrime activities in the global digital era.
The growing popularity of digitalization has compelled organizations to extensively rely on digitized information. Sharing of a vast amount of data in an external and internal environment as well as across the globe has made organizations fall prey to cybercrime through different forms of attacks. A successful online attack can harm the enterprise as well as its reputation and brand. It can further result in a loss of competitive advantage and cause steep financial damage. In the wake of breaches and high-profile data theft, it becomes vital for an organization to determine future threats, signaling them to redesign their cyber safety stance. Thus, cyber safety is becoming a strategic imperative for an organization owing to an increased focus on preventing cybercrime activities, which can hamper the momentum of the business.
Technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and new business models extensively rely on global digitization for their growth. As the system becomes more complex, interconnected, and handles more information, the exposure to the attack surface becomes much broader while exposing the gaps in the security system of the business. The primary platform for an increase in cybercrime activities is connectivity through the use of Big Data, cloud, social media, and mobile services. For instance, third-party data storage and cloud-based services have opened avenues for an online attack, which previously did not exist. Moreover, IoT products enabled with IP sensors are anticipated to introduce vulnerabilities to the user data, if they have not been adequately tested. Such services operate on the backbone of the internet and will become increasingly connected over a period of the next three years, allowing the need for a robust cyber safety system in the business environment.
The convergence of such events has driven the proliferation of endpoint and wireless safety services in an enterprise improving access to corporate information, both on-premise and outside the corporate network. A robust cyber safety layer in a business environment is aimed to detect, prevent, and react to the network attack or cyber-attack at the time of intrusion. A scalable and flexible strategy while taking advantage of the requisite solution prepares an organization to combat unforeseen challenges to their safety infrastructure.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, several incidences and cases of Cybercrime were observed across industries. Cyber threat actors that follow Cybercrime as a Service have increasingly targeted every part of the demographics that searched information related to COVID-19 using malicious domain names registered with names as COVID-19 or coronavirus. According to cyber experts, at the end of March 2020, around 40,261 suspicious registered domain names were identified. Additionally, in recent times the use of identical business email addresses also became the preferable choice for cyber attackers to conduct attacks. Furthermore, with the shift towards the remote working environment, cyber threat risks increased among organizations. The pressing concerns of cyber threat risk influence organizations to adopt solutions and configure malware protection, detection, and mitigation strategies.
Cyber-crime in times of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a VUCA (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity) world, where every individual and organization has been adversely impacted in one way or another. With a global lockdown to contain the spread of the disease, businesses have shifted to remote working. This is undoubtedly a threat to most companies as their network perimeters have expanded radically. Firms are not just at risk of facing outages, but also at serious cyber threats. The situation has created fertile ground for scams and frauds. So, what kind of nefarious scams should we expect in the coming weeks and months?
Increase in Phishing Attacks: The COVID-19 crisis has seen a spike in phishing attacks that have resulted in many people losing their hard-earned money. Scammers have taken advantage of the ongoing chaos and confusion to launch phishing emails, websites, and other forms of attacks. As more and more people, NGOs, and religious groups are engaged in providing relief to the needy affected by the pandemic, it has become easier for these fraudsters to impersonate them and solicit donations. With the rise in job losses, there is also a possibility of a spurt in job hunting scams through dubious agencies and websites, fraudsters can run scams that offer jobs and may look legitimate but are mostly fake.
KYC/Fake documents for Benefits: The Government of India has announced many beneficial schemes to help small businesses such as interest/EMI waive-off for MSME, microloan for unorganized vendors, a moratorium of EMI for various loans up to 6-months. But in most cases, common people might find it challenging to avail these schemes owing to the amount of paperwork and the general complexities involved in dealing with banks. There is a high possibility of many bogus agents approaching small business owners with fake offers of support in exchange for money, fraudsters may use fake KYC documents to avail such benefits or could run a racket of fund diversion.
Insider Frauds: As COVID-19 has disrupted the global economy, many people have either lost their jobs or have had to accept a pay cut. The financial stress from this economic crisis is what motivates many employees to make their company itself a target and misappropriate its assets. Data from a cyber-crime survey indicates that 42% of occupational fraudsters live beyond their means when they commit fraud. Companies need to be extra cautious to safeguard their interests against insider frauds, especially because organizations tend to place a certain amount of trust in their employees, making it difficult to detect these nefarious activities.
The massive increase in sextortion-related crimes: During the lockdown period, almost everyone is trying to engage in some or other activity. Many webinars, online shows, online classes, etc. are high on demand. But largely for teenagers, Instagram stories and Snapchat are more than anything. Similarly, Tiktok videos have brought out the talent of millions of people. However, in want of publicity, some inappropriate videos and photos are made by many people. What if someone breaks into your phone or computer and gain access to private material?
In the wake of COVID-19, there has also been a spike in sextortion crimes. It is a widely used form of spam attack where cybercriminals extort money by claiming to have a person’s compromising pictures or evidence of their sexual activity. They can hack into someone’s mobile phone or other electronic devices and steal those videos/ photos or even morph a regular photo to make it look obscene. The attacker threatens to share such evidence with the person’s friends and family and employer unless they pay ransom money, attackers prey on the victim’s fear and embarrassment and blackmail him/her into paying up.
Fake medicines/Anti-Corona drugs: In this pandemic situation, and until the time an effective medicine or vaccine is discovered, there will be many advertisements, websites, and other forms of communication on medications, which may claim to cure COVID-19 completely. Further, platforms promoting counterfeit medicines to boost immunity levels will also appear in the online market. Those fake websites ultimately lure people with the prospect of the COVID-19 cure and compel them to pay online in advance. Either, there will be no delivery or bogus things/ toxic products that will be delivered in place of legitimate medicines.
Increase ransomware attacks: During the COVID-19 lockdown, as more organizations shift to remote working, regular system maintenance like upgrades, applying patches, fixing known vulnerabilities, etc. have indeed suffered a lot. The reduction of IT spending has impacted security spending as well. The systems also have weaker security measures when working from home. With all these opportunities, there’s a very high likelihood of cybercriminals trying to gain unauthorized access to such systems through unpatched vulnerabilities. Ransomware is the most effective tool they may use to encrypt your data, and upon receiving hefty ransom money in the form of bitcoins, they may release decryption keys for you to release the data.
As the world struggles to understand how to respond to this black swan event, the time is ripe for scammers to take advantage of people’s fears and anxiety and run scams, thus adding to their nightmarish ordeal. It is recommended that individuals and organizations look towards the future to protect themselves, their employees, their customers, etc. against all possible frauds.
Emerging Cybersecurity Trends in 2021
The fact that the technology landscape is constantly changing isn’t a new phenomenon, but it’s certainly been taken to new heights in the last year. The word “disruption” adequately describes the experiences of countless organizations amid COVID-19—no one could have predicted its impact on business, technology, and cybersecurity.
Impact of Remote Work: New Threats and Solutions
It’s no surprise that COVID-19 and the resulting shift to remote work had major implications for the world of cybersecurity. For many, it involved unplanned cloud migrations and swift procurement of IT products and services to accommodate a newly remote landscape. In the effort to keep business operations running, many companies rushed typical security measures or even side-stepped them entirely, creating new levels of vulnerability and risk across all industries.
Not only that, but the world of remote work isn’t going anywhere post-pandemic. Organizations will need to assess their current security infrastructures for areas of weakness that were left unattended during the sudden shift to remote and start thinking about a long-term remote security strategy going forward.
New Challenges from Ransomware
Ransomware is one of the most common threats to any organization’s data security, and this threat will continue to increase and evolve as a top cybersecurity trend in 2021. Ransomware attacks plague organizations with data theft and economic blows due to the costs of recovering from these attacks. In 2020, ransomware attacks were more expensive than the average data breach, costing US$4.44 million on average.
The sophistication of techniques criminals are using is growing, too. There’s an increasing emphasis on extortion attacks, where criminals steal a company’s data and encrypt it so they can’t access it. Afterward, cybercriminals will blackmail the company, threatening to release its private data unless a ransom is paid. The burden of this cyberthreat is significant given the sensitive data on the line as well as the economic impact of paying the ransom.
While many IT departments and companies rely on Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to facilitate access to their corporate network, VPNs are proving inadequate in 2021 and beyond. The most common entry vector for ransomware is phishing, and organizations should realize these attacks are ramping up significantly and act accordingly. Zero-Trust Network Access (ZTNA) has emerged as a more secure option for controlling remote access to sensitive data and reducing the likelihood of an attack. By 2023, 60% of businesses will phase out of VPNs and transition to ZTNA.
Increased Use of Multi-Factor Authentication
While passwords remain a standard for cybersecurity best practices, more companies will adopt multi-factor authentication (MFA) as an additional defense against data breaches and malicious attacks in 2021. MFA involves the use of two or more separate factors in authorizing users to access secure data, forcing people to use more than one device to confirm their identity. An example of MFA in action is having a one-time passcode sent to two or more devices.
While the use of MFA is critical to security, Microsoft recently urged users to move away from phone-based MFA (when the one-time passcode is sent to your phone via SMS text) due to the weak security among telephone networks today. SMS-based aren’t encrypted, meaning attackers can gain access to these plain text codes. This means companies should choose more secure MFA methods to implement, namely application-based MFA like Google Authenticator or Microsoft Authenticator.
Continued Rise of AI
AI and machine learning are growing in sophistication and capability, and companies will continue to hone these technologies in 2021 as part of their security infrastructure. AI is increasingly being used to build automated security systems that replace human intervention, making it possible to analyze massive quantities of risk data at a much faster pace. This is beneficial both for large companies dealing with huge amounts of data and small or mid-sized companies whose security teams might be under-resourced.
While AI presents a major opportunity for stronger threat detection among businesses, the evolution and increased use of this technology go both ways. Criminal networks are taking advantage of AI to automate their attacks, and they are turning to data-poisoning and model-stealing techniques to do so. That said, organizations would be remiss to bypass the opportunity AI presents—organizations who suffered a data breach but had AI technology fully deployed saved an average of US$3.58 million in 2020.
Increased Attacks on Cloud Services
With the rapid and widespread adoption of remote work following COVID-19, the necessity for cloud-based services and infrastructure increased drastically. Going into 2021 and beyond, this trend will only continue to grow as more businesses adopt cloud-hosted processes.
While cloud services offer a wealth of benefits such as scalability, efficiency, and lower costs, they’re still a prime target for attackers. Organizations will need to take stock of the security implications that come with the cloud and determine any vulnerabilities that exist in their current infrastructure. For example, misconfigured cloud settings were a leading cause of data breaches in 2020—and resulted in an average total cost of US$4.41 million. Additionally, migration to the cloud increased the cost of the breach by US$267,469.
Data Privacy as a Discipline
With the growing number of high-profile cyber-attacks exposing millions of personally identifiable information (PII) records, concerns about data privacy, management, and security have skyrocketed. In 2021, data privacy will no longer remain a single component of a security program but will become a program of its own. Regulatory compliance requirements have continued to increase and will continue to do so in 2021, and organizations will be required to focus on their data privacy efforts moving forward.
Data privacy impacts almost every aspect of an organization, from creating and implementing the corporate strategy to staying in alignment with security and HR throughout the process. Organizations should consider things like data privacy officers, record retention and destruction, role-based access control, encryption in transit, and network segmentation to assess where they can strengthen their data privacy in 2021 and beyond.
COVID-19 Phishing Schemes
With the continued release of the COVID-19 vaccination, people are increasingly searching for vaccination information such as where it’s being provided and who’s been approved to get it. Unfortunately, this has brought about a significant level of phishing attacks tied to the COVID-19 vaccine. Attacks against pharmaceutical companies and vaccine distributors, along with email phishing attacks disguised as vaccination appointment emails, are on the uptick.
Phishing attacks are even more troubling amid the widespread remote workforce and attackers home in on individuals connecting to their employer’s network from home because they’re the easiest targets. To combat this, organizations should consider their identity management and security strategy and ensure only the right people have the appropriate level of access to the resources they need at the right time. Organizations will need to thoroughly assess their current infrastructure to align with this goal while paying special attention to company-wide implementation.
Increased Need for Cybersecurity Professionals
Finding well-trained cybersecurity professionals has historically been a challenge across all industries, but the continued shift to and dependence on a more distributed workforce is creating a more critical need for them in 2021. Organizations will need to push to find well-trained professionals and subject matter experts to help increase the security of corporate networks.
As companies set out to hire more cybersecurity professionals, they should also focus on educating their employees on how to spot attacks on their own. While it may take some time to adequately staff your organization with the right cybersecurity experts, implementing company-wide training can provide a buffer for attacks in the interim. Training should be continuous, and companies should constantly measure its effectiveness. Executives should also be involved—for such an initiative to be successful, it must be implemented from the top down.
Insider Threats on the Rise
As we continue to navigate a remote workforce, insider threats are becoming a heightened area of concern. While it’s far easier to believe that all cybersecurity threats come from external forces, organizations shouldn’t ignore the reality and increasing sophistication of threat actors within their own companies. This is especially true as organizations continue to hire remote-only employees who are scattered across the world, and who they may have hired only after meeting virtually.
In 2021, companies must give more consideration to the possibility of insider threats and data theft at the hands of their own employees. While this can be difficult to come to terms with, the data doesn’t lie—15% to 25% of security breach incidents are caused by trusted business partners. Inside threats must be taken seriously and seen as a real risk by security leaders, and tough questions will need to be asked about whether organizations have the proper tools in place to spot and stop them.
increased Need for Chief Security Officers
While the need for strengthened security systems across industries is well known, only 11% of companies report a high degree of confidence in managing or responding to a cyber-attack. Security risk management as a discipline is still maturing, so while this data isn’t all that surprising, it should be an area of importance for companies moving into 2021. One increasingly common barrier is a lack of alignment between security operations and business strategy.
The disconnect between security and business reduces the effectiveness of cybersecurity initiatives, as the baseline for what’s considered adequate risk management is disjointed across departments. To combat this, Chief Security Officers will need to become more vigilant in identifying risks in the context of business objectives and be able to explain why they matter to business leaders. By pinpointing these risks and articulating how they plan to lower them (and at what cost), CSO’s can create a shared understanding between business and security leaders that strengthens cybersecurity initiatives across the board.
Critical Need for Real-Time Data Visibility
While many executives are managing cybersecurity risks for some aspects of their organization, their efforts are weakened without a comprehensive picture of the company’s entire technological landscape. Many executives don’t have a full IT asset inventory or a complete list of all third-party suppliers and cloud applications used within their organization. This results in weakened risk assessment programs since they’re often based on inventories that lack a full and clear picture of the threat landscape.
To combat this, introducing security automation and real-time data visibility within organizations is imperative to managing data protection to the fullest degree. The only way to prevent data loss is to know exactly where your data is, and for 2021 and beyond, knowing this on a minute-by-minute basis. Implementing automated security systems not only strengthens companies’ ability to mitigate data theft and breaches but also heightens operational efficiency and overall resilience to cybersecurity threats.
Self – Sustained Economic growth through Secured Governance
“Secured Governance offers a strategy for the government to get all the basic infrastructure development with a negligible investment by the Government. It is a concept of developing Techno-Economic Corridors connecting HUBs which will act as a growth center for individual sectors. The very concept of “Secured’’ here implies a secured convergence or knitting with various sectors defining a growth for an economy.”
Secured Governance – A Holistic Approach to Infrastructure Development
Secured Governance is a concept that is catching the attention of many as a holistic approach to infrastructure needs, promising a great deal. It professes taking advantage of the valuation of assets created and delivering at negligible cost to the government. It aims at balanced growth in all sectors in need of better facilities, in a more holistic manner, rather than focusing only on saying expressways, or power, or any one of numerous other sectors. While addressing any one of them, the others also get due attention ensuring all-around development. It promises more societal participation and benefit-sharing with transparency. Underlying this is a strategy of developing techno-economic corridors connecting urban areas across the country.
Secured Governance advocates a pragmatic approach of taking Advantage of Valuation of Assets Created
This is not new. We all know when development takes place there is valuation in the property. Who benefits from this? More often than not it is incidental and taken advantage of by land and property sharks. Imagine a model where this valuation can be plowed back into the project and also benefit the people around. First, the cost of the project is reduced, and can actually be at negligible cost to the government if carefully planned. Next, the population sees it as benefitting them and so they participate more enthusiastically, helping with the early completion of the project rather than being an impediment.
The COVID-19 pandemic has, almost overnight, forced us to adapt to a whole new working environment. Both organizations and employees have come to terms with working remotely or working from home. While we may have converted a part of our home into a workplace, it is important to remember that we are now using our home network to connect to global servers and downloading more data than it normally expects. How, then, can we ensure that our devices and our networks are more secure? It has been observed that, while consumers today are more aware than before of cybercrimes, data breaches, and online threats such as phishing, the measures they adopt for cybersecurity may often not be adequate. With remote working likely to become a more common feature of corporate work culture in the lockdown period, we need to be better prepared to ward off cyber threats.
Several essential parts of our critical information infrastructure, whether they are in banking, energy, or telecom, are owned by the private sector. Be it a cloud computing architecture or a VPN server, the owners and operators of critical infrastructure need to have a stratified information sharing mechanism with the government given the varying degrees of maturity in security practices among different entities. In India, the remit of public-private collaboration has been fairly limited to just the context of education and awareness programs, such as the Cyber Shikshaa project for skilling women engineering graduates. This must be expanded towards creating self-governed coordinating sector councils known as Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) that facilitate early warning systems and crisis management, not just within these sectors, but as cross-sectoral coordination.
The most recent Cyber Security Insights Report revealed that four of every ten Indians surveyed had become victims of identity theft in the year 2019. The risks in 2020 will be far greater, given the heightened dependence on digital tools and platforms. Users are consuming more apps than before for purposes ranging from online dating to e-commerce and banking transactions. Children are spending more time online for education and entertainment. An increase in online time increases the risk of exposure to cyber threats. There is a greater need than ever to protect one’s data and identity in the online world. However, the aforesaid report suggests that while Indian consumers are indeed concerned about the misuse of personal information, they are happy to share it if they get something in return.
Data breaches are a significant risk whether intentional or not. Even a well-intentioned employee could accidentally compromise sensitive company information by clicking on a malicious link on their smartphone. It is therefore advisable to always follow certain basic but important best practices in cybersecurity — being cautious when engaging in online activities; abiding by company rules; and reaching out for help when you encounter something suspicious.
The synapse between the COVID-19 pandemic and cybersecurity imperatives can be addressed with a call to action that the new Cyber Security Strategy on the anvil can address. Cybersecurity should be upgraded from a supporting sector to an important entity and need to have Secured Hubs as this needs a large no of training and support systems for it to effectively guard the National growth. New red lines that have emerged only draw to us the reality that it isn’t possible to hermetically seal our societies or the networks. The new policy must be in sync with these modern realities and look to adapt to future disruptions in reinvigorating trust and boosting our digital immunity.
Dr. P. Sekhar, Chairman,
Global Smart City Panel,
Brijesh Singh, Inspector-General of Police, Government of Maharashtra