According to a UNESCO report issued on Tuesday, the country has almost 1.2 lakh single-teacher schools, with an overwhelming 89 percent located in rural regions. According to the research, India requires 11.16 lakh, extra teachers, to make up for the existing shortage.
The results of the research, titled ‘State of the Education Report for India-2021,’ which focuses on teachers, are primarily based on an examination of data from the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) and the Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE).
It was prepared by a team of specialists from the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, chaired by Prof Padma M Sarangapani, in collaboration with a UNESCO team.
According to the study, based on PLFS 2018-19 data estimates, there are 1,10,971 single-teacher schools across states, accounting for 7.15 percent of the 11.51 lakh schools employing 95 lakh teachers. “89% of these single-teacher schools are located in rural areas.” Arunachal Pradesh (18.22%), Goa (16.08%), Telangana (15.71%), Andhra Pradesh (14.4%), Jharkhand (13.81%), and Uttarakhand (13.81%) are among the states having a high rate of single-teacher schools (13.64 percent), Madhya Pradesh (13.08%) and Rajasthan (10.08%), according to the study.
Deirdre Boyd, the UN resident coordinator in India, stated in a press release that the SDG on education was “like a raft that keeps other SDGs afloat.”
According to Sarangapani, the gender ratio in professions is “generally balanced,” with women instructors accounting for 50% of the total. However, there exist inter-state and urban-rural disparities.
Tripura has the lowest percentage of female teachers, at 32 percent, followed by Assam, Jharkhand, and Rajasthan, all of which have 39 percent. Chandigarh tops the list with 82 percent, followed by Goa (80 percent), Delhi (74 percent), and Kerala (74 percent) (78 percent).
“The proportion of women teachers in rural locations is less than that in urban locations,” the report says. “In rural areas, 28 percent of primary school teachers are women versus 63 percent in urban areas. However, early childhood education teachers are predominantly women, and 88 percent of them are in rural areas. At the secondary school level, 24 percent of teachers in rural areas are women, versus 53 percent in urban locations.”
According to the report, the proportion of teachers engaged in the private sector increased from 21% in 2013-14 to 35% in 2018-19. It stated that the number of teachers required in these schools has decreased by 10%, compared to 6% in government institutions. The Right to Education Act requires a pupil-teacher ratio (PTR) of 30:1 in grades 1-5 and 35:1 in later grades.
“Based on the PTR of 35:1, the total additional teacher requirement is found to be about 1,116,846,” the report said. “69 percent of total additional teacher requirement is in rural areas. States with large requirements include Uttar Pradesh (320,000), and Bihar (220,000), followed by Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal (between 60,000 and 80,000).”
According to PLFS statistics, the average pay of private school teachers in the country (primary and secondary) is Rs 13,564, with rural private school teachers earning less at Rs 11,584. Women teachers in rural private schools earn Rs 8212 a month on average.
The Indian Express