Overview of Indian Agriculture
Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of India’s population. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry and fishing is estimated at INR. 18.55 lakh crore (US$ 265.51 billion) in FY19(PE).The Indian food industry is poised for huge growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade every year due to its immense potential for value addition, particularly within the food processing industry. The Indian food and grocery market are the world’s sixth largest, with retail contributing 70% of the sales. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32% of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth. It contributes around 8.80 and 8.39% of Gross Value Added (GVA) in Manufacturing and Agriculture respectively, 13% of India’s exports and six per cent of total industrial investment.
During 2018-19* crop year, food grain production is estimated at record 283.37 million tonnes. In 2019-20, Government of India is targeting food grain production of 291.1 million tonnes. Milk production was estimated at 176.3 million tonnes during FY18, while meat production was 7.4 million tonnes. As of August 2019, total area sown with kharif crops in India reached 92.6 million hectares.India is the second largest fruit producer in the world. Production of horticulture crops is estimated at record 313.9 million metric tonne (MMT) in 2018-19 as per third advance estimates.
Total agricultural exports from India grew at a CAGR of 16.45% over FY10-18 to reach US$38.21 billion in FY18. In FY19, agriculture exports were US$38.54 billion. India is also the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices and spice products.
Undoubtedly, there has been a little positiveimpact of economic reforms on agriculture sector inIndia and in some cases it has been showing negativetrends. Compared to international standards, Indianagriculture has been witnessing slow annual growthrate even in the economic reform period.
Overview of Farmers Suicide in India
Historical records relating to frustration,revolts and high mortality rates among farmersin India, particularly cash crop farmers, dateback to the 19th century but the cases offarmer’s suicide was rare. But present century a record of at least2.63 lakh farmers hascommitted suicide in India over the last 16years. The States which come either under dryzone or areas under rainfed agriculture havereported the highest number of suicides Themajor states are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarhfollow closely, with two thirds (68.4%) offarmer suicides being reported from thesestates.
Reasons of Farmer Suicide
Various reasons have been offered to explain why farmers commit suicide in India, including: floods, drought, debt, use of genetically modified seed, public health, use of lower quantity pesticides due to less investments producing a decreased yield.
There is no consensus on what the main causes might be but studies show suicide victims are motivated by more than one cause, on average three or more causes for committing suicide. Panagariya states, “farm-related reasons get cited only approximately 25% of the time as reasons for suicide” and “studies do consistently show greater debt burden and greater reliance on informal sources of credit” amongst farmers who commit suicide. A study conducted earlier, found that there are three specific characteristics associated with high-risk farmers: “those that grow cash crops such as coffee and cotton; those with ‘marginal’ farms of less than one hectare; and those with debts of 300 Rupees or more.” The study also found that the Indian states in which these three characteristics are most common had the highest suicide rates and also accounted for “almost 75% of the variability in state-level suicides.
Farmer’s suicide is a global phenomenon. Outside India, studies in Sri Lanka, USA, Canada, and Australia have identified farming as a high stress profession that is associated with a higher suicide rate than the general population. This is particularly true among small scale farmers and after periods of economic distress.Similarly, after a review of 52 scholarly publications, conclude that farming populations in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States have the highest rates of suicide of any industry and there is growing evidence that those involved in farming are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. Their review claims a wide range of reasons behind farmer’s suicide globally including mental health issues, physical environment, family problems, economic stress and uncertainties. Significantly higher suicide rate among farmers than general population have been reported in developed countries such as the UK and the US.
Around 8 lakh suicides every yearin various countries all over the world. Till date, only a few countries have included suicide prevention among their health priorities and only 38 countries report having a national suicide prevention strategy.
Some key facts about suicide:
- According to the data published by the WHO, nearly 8 lakh people die due to suicide every year, which is one person every 40 seconds;
- Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-olds globally;
- 79% of suicides occurred in low and middle-income countries in 2016;
- Suicide accounted for 1.4% of all deaths worldwide, making it the 18th leading cause of death in 2016;
- It is estimated that the method used for 20% of the global suicides is self-poisoning, most of which occur in rural agricultural areas in low- and middle-income countries.
Countries with the Highest Suicide rates in 2018 (According to World Population review)
Among the top five are:
- Sri Lanka – 3 suicides per 100,000
- South Korea in East Asia – 3 suicides per 100,000
- Eastern European country of Lithuania – 7 suicides per 100,000
- A number of other eastern European countries have high suicide rates, including Belarus, Poland, and Latvia, all at around 22 suicides per 100,000
- The only western European nation with a particularly high suicide rate is Belgium, which ranks at number 15 with 5 suicides per 100,000. Belgium has some of the world’s most liberal laws on doctor-assisted suicide, which is likely to be a factor in its statistics
- The country of Bhutan, famous for measuring Gross National Happiness, an index used to measure the collective happiness and wellbeing of its population, has a relatively high suicide rate at 7 per 100,000
Surprisingly, most of the troubled nations in the world have comparatively low suicide rates.
- Afghanistan has 5 suicides per 100,000, Iraq has three and Syria has just 2.7.
- It is not clear if the suicide statistics for these countries reflect suicides committed due to mental health problems and terminal illnesses (which are the primary reasons for suicide in most of the world), or if the suicides committed as a part of the ongoing conflicts in these countries are included as well.
Countries with the lowest suicide rates:
- Caribbean Islands of the Bahamas, Jamaica, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua, and Barbuda are the countries having the lowest suicide rates.
- Suicide is almost unheard of in each of these countries, with Grenada and Barbados reporting 5 and 0.4 suicides per 100,000.
Overview of Suicide of Maharashtra
Suicidal behaviour is a major problem across the world and adversely affects the family, society and theentire nation. Maharashtra is developed state of India, although it could not avoidtendency of citizens towards suicide. It is indeed, Maharashtra is also mostdistressed state of India. Maharashtra has recorded as many as 32,605 farmer suicides in the 19 – year span between 2001 – 2019, shows the latest state revenue department data. This means the average number of cases per year was 1,716. The number of farmers‟ suicide has increased rapidly than any otherstates in India. It is found that the percentage of eligible suicide victim for immediaterelief scheme of state government had in Konkan region (91%), followedby Nasik division 57.5%, Pune 55 percent, Aurangabad 50.5%,Nagpur 40%and lowest 34% in Amravati division. Itmeans that higher the number of suicide victim farmers, lower is the percentage ofeligible suicide victim for government grant.
Interdependence of Agriculture Sector
Industry – Industry sector and agriculture sector both is the lifeline of an economy. Agriculture meets people’s demand for food. Industry meets people’s demand for other goods like clothes, houses, electricity, transport etc. Both food and non – food items are essential for living of human beings. As such both industry and agriculture are must for any society. Industry and agriculture are complementary so far as satisfaction of wants of people are concerned. Both must grow simultaneously. Industry alone cannot progress without progress of industry. They are dependent on each other in respect of demand and supply. The population engaged in agriculture needs industrial products. The population engaged in industry needs agricultural products. Industrial production needs raw materials produced by the agricultural sector. There is therefore, a clear-cut interdependence between agriculture and industry.
Agriculture helps industries in the following ways:
- It provides raw materials for industries;
- It provides a market for manufactured goods;
- It provides labour;
- It provides food for workers working in industries;
- It can be a source of funds for the industrial sector.
Industries help agriculture in the following ways:
- They provide seeds of better quality;
- They provide fertilizers;
- They help in developing irrigation facilities;
- They provide pesticides;
- They supply modern equipment such as tractors;
- They help in the development of marketing and storage facilities;
- They supply manufactured goods to workers in the agriculture sector.
Transportation – The Agriculture Sector is dependent upon the Transportation Systems Sector for movement of commodities, products and livestock. With the development of means of transport and storage facilities, agriculture has become more and more commercial in character. The farmer grows those crops that fetch a better price in the urban market adequate and cheap transport facilities enable the farmers to take their surplus produce to the market rather than dispose it of in the village moneylender-cum-merchant at low prices.
Power Sector – There is a growing demand for electrical energy for irrigation requirements in India. Agriculture is one of the largest consumers of both electricity and water. Very often ground water level falls to such an extent in this state that mining is required to extract water which cannot be replenished by rain. Therefore, most of the electricity used by agriculture goes to pump groundwater. Power is also required to power the equipment needed for agriculture production and food processing.
Banking Sector– Agricultural growth plays an important role in boosting the economic growth of a country; therefore, RRB’s are created as a helping hand to foster the agricultural growth. The function of RRB is to provide loans to the small marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. Timely credit facilities will facilitate the purchase of world class equipment, fertilizers and irrigation can be done more in a scientific way.
Education – Agricultural education and training provides a range of educational activities with the primary aim of achieving human resource development throughout the rural economies of almost all nations.
It covers the learning needs of all parts of the renewable natural resources (RNR) sector, including e.g. forestry, fisheries, and wildlife and land use management. Availability of technically qualified manpower in different disciplines of agriculture is an essential pre-requisite for implementation of development programmes.
Governance is about the assignment of decision and input rights and the use of an accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in decision making. Etymologically, governance can be traced back to the Greek verb kubernan (to pilot or to steer) and was used by Plato with regard to how to design a system of rule. The Greek term gave rise to the Medieval Latin gubernare, which has the same connotation of piloting, rulemaking, or steering. Governance is the capacity of the government to make and implement policy, in other words, to steer the society.
Conceptually, governance can be defined as the rule of the rulers, typically within a given set of rules. One might conclude that governance is the process – by which authority is conferred on rulers, by which they make the rules, and by which those rules are enforced and modified. Thus, understanding governance requires an identification of the rulers and the rules, as well as the various processes by which they are selected, defined, and linked together with the society generally.
Responsibilities of Governance
What is Secured Governance?
Secured Governance is a structural approach to Governance that enriches cohesion, coherency, and collectiveness to establish secured climate for bringing peace and then to embed stability so that development in any sector can take hold over a long period of time. Only Secured Governance can put down roots deep enough to break the cycle of fragility in all functionalities and bringing in all round participation by concerned organizations and institutions while contributing towards strengthening the process of nation building.
Secured Governance 0r S-Governance is the process of implementation and standardization of an exchange format that develops, interdependency among various sectors and integrates external as well as intra departmental co-ordination, which will bring transparency by showcasing a clear understanding and keeping track of the system which are substantiated and governed with help of monitoring cum governing Systems, policy framework and event handling Parameters.
S-Governance will ensure good relations between the states and its infrastructures and the society, so the people see a credible state that is able to deliver services and meet their needs; Secured Governance – to synthesize social capital, human capital, intellectual capital, physical capital, cyber capital and communication capital in consonance with security capital to create a virtuous society where civic engagement will remain perpetual for securing sustainable growth of the society.
Components of Secured Governance
- Building Legitimacy of the State or Society;
- Provide Security;
- Foster Local and National Ownership;
- Ensure Economic Stability – as a Foundation for Growth and Opportunity;
- Pay Attention to the Political Economy;
- Coordinate Across Institutions and Actors;
- Consider the Regional Context;
- Recognize the Long-term Commitment.
The S-Governance Approach
- Identify high impact problems in various sectors;
- Research and document root causes;
- Educate and train citizens to implement S-Governance;
- Develop focused and measurable action plans within the purview of S-Governance;
- Share successful, sustainable and scalable solutions with like-minded groups across Indian states.
Agricultural HUBs in India
Making up around 60% percent of the country’s total land area and contributing around 14% of GDP, the agriculture sector remains a cornerstone of the Indian economy. Yet the 14% that agriculture contributes to GDP is a number that is steadily declining, having comprised 30% of GDP in 1990-91, despite around 52% of India’s workforce still engaged in the agriculture sector (CII). Even though the decline in agriculture as a percentage of total GDP points the growth in Indian GDP contributed by other spaces, particularly the booming IT space, the high concentration of Indians in rural areas means that India’s poor are not experiencing a comparable increase in income.
Many social enterprises are currently concerning the agriculture sector growth, attempting to bring new technologies to rural areas to improve the efficiency and profitability of farmers. One such venture is Secured Governance, in that a platform need to be developed among the farmer society to solve all the problems related to agriculture.
As India’s population continues to grow, more citizens will move to cities. Various surveys state that about 25-30 people will migrate every minute to major Indian cities from rural areas in search of better livelihood and better lifestyles. The country needs to find smarter ways to prevent migration from rural to urban, manage complexities and improve the quality of life.
Agriculture HUBs will have state-of-the-art facilities, at par with the best in contemporary international scenario, duly adapted for local conditions.
The project will address complete backward and forward linkages from farmers to the consumers. The HUB will be equipped with facilities for the following:
- Food processing,
- Cold storages,
- Central auctioning,
- Ripening chambers,
- Quality control laboratories,
- One stop shopping for input,
- Agri- clinic and extension services,
- Information kiosk etc.
- Erection and successful utilization of Export Facility Centers for various commodities
- Farmers Training Centres.
- Vocational Agricultural Schools
- Agricultural Market Level Training for Farmers
- Farmers Information and Guidance Centres
- Training for Women in Agriculture
- Farmer Exchange Programmes
Facilities Required in Agriculture HUB
Gateway of Agri Related Information –
- Accurate weather forecast report;
- Updated Market price of Agri and Allied Products;
- Status of Storage availability;
- Information about Agri Export.
Farmer Training Centre –
- Training to the Farmers on Modern Agricultural Technology;
- Crop Management;
- New irrigation method;
- Modern storage method & Agricultural Marketing.
Agri Market –
- Benefitting producers by increasing their sales outlets and benefitting consumers by improving food security, access and availability;
- Promoting agricultural exports from the country and remunerative returns to the farming community in a sustained manner.
Food Storage –
- Reducing pre and post-harvest losses through appropriate methods and encourage value addition;
- Facilities to enable the farmers to store and sell their produce at favourable price and to help consumers to get quality food products.
Rural Banking –
- Banks to provide post-harvest loans to farmers at a subsidised rate to discourage distress food grain sales.
Fertilizer & Pesticide –
- Correct fertilizer placement in the root zone can greatly enhance plant nutrient uptake and minimize losses.
Agri Equipment (Or) Machinery –
- Modern Agri Equipment or Machineries are available in Agriculture HUB.
Soil Testing-Lab –
- To estimate the available nutrient status, reaction (acidic/alkaline) of a soil.Various Secured Governance HUBsSecured Governance proposes 200 HUBs with a Techno-Economic Corridor to meet the demand; quite in tune with Central Government’s ambitious project of building ‘100 Smart Cities’ in the upcoming years. India needs to build Infrastructure & Urban development Projects under Secured Governance methodology to speed up the country’s developmental agenda. Secured Governance offers a strategy for the government to get all the basic infrastructure development with a negligible investment, through a centralized selection process of developer or set of developers;The investors will draw returns from the project based on value created by the system which covers the project cost and yet gives opportunity for investors to devise models to commercialize the project and gain profits from the valuation of infrastructure.
The Nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes, and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures. Be it through direct connectivity, policies and procedures, or geospatial proximity, most critical infrastructure systems interact. These interactions often create complex relationships, dependencies, and interdependencies that cross infrastructure boundaries.
Secured Governance is a tool to utilize precious resource of the Nation. It is a holistic approach towards infrastructure development in the country for the National Economic Growth by considering the interest of all stake holders i.e. Public and Private sector units, Government and masses (who contribute towards the creation and development of society at large). A systematic implementation of the concept of Secured Governance leads to mass employment generation, mitigation of losses of existing low performing units by utilizing their existing strength areas and improved standard of living for the associated people along with reduction of migration of resource rich manpower to urban areas in search of better standard of living.
It attempts to work towards close knit growth in all sectors of the economy, without the usual financial constraints that hamper ongoing efforts. It will help enable all that the common man needs to feel secure ─ a safe home and hearth with progress around him, which is what one expects from good governance. It facilitates an equal opportunity for Private sector and Government to work together with a single window clearance system to achieve greater results to bring National progress with profitability to the participating organizations. “Techno Economic Corridor” defines an economic linkage between major cities or developing region, connecting various Secured Governance HUBs contributing to primary sector and supported by subsidiary sectors which includes many initiatives and development plans in and around the two nodal connecting regions.
We need a system to integrate economic interdependence in today’s modern societies which not only decreases uncertainty regarding where risks begin and end, but also help in judicious planning and development of new empowered, transparent and interdependent governance systems with higher degree of society participation in nation building process. Secured Governance is an ideal choice which equips to create adequate and coordinated measures to ensure the provision of financial, human, technical, information and other capacity building resources.
Secured Governance is an effort towards tighter integration between growth oriented sectors such as Agriculture, Highways, Railways, Industries, Tourism, Sports, Education, Power, Healthcare and other related sectors of an economy. Much of the investments for development will come from Private sector wherein government and its agencies will act as facilitators. This will have a spiraling effect on Global Economy with a defined regions being developed as “HUBs” and multiple HUBs connecting each other creating a Techno- Economic Corridor.
The Agricultural HUBs will be spread over Rural and Semi Urban regions promoting Agro – Industrial development and adoption of modern amenities and technologies to generate additional employment in rural and semi urban areas and pay rich dividend to elite and rich investors. Secured Governance addresses the problems of the agriculture sector and need of rural states of India to ensure social justice & better quality of life. This will have a highest level of decentralized Growth and Rural development and employment generation in the country. Secured Governance will implement legitimacy, enhance civic engagement, increase community approach in decision making and bring transparency in auditing pertinent to developmental work for the global village. Secured Governance will ensure good policy making mechanism towards National Infrastructure Development. In the 1st phase of development there are 12 agricultural HUBs need to be built in all over India.
Civil infrastructure systems represent huge public investments and are expected to provide services for very long periods of time. Their use spans several generations during which society will experience dramatic changes. This lengthy time span means that future developments in the transport of goods and people must be assessed and planned well in advance in order to make the right choices, not only for today but also for tomorrow. Looking ahead into the future and considering probable developments in society enables us to search for proper solutions.
Secured Governance advocates a pragmatic approach of taking advantage of valuation of assets created
This is not new; we all know when development takes place there is valuation in property. Imagine a model where this valuation can be ploughed back into the project and also benefit the people around. First the cost of the project is reduced, and can actually be at near zero cost to the government if carefully planned. Next the population sees it as benefitting them and so they participate more enthusiastically, helping with early completion of the project rather than being an impediment.
Secured Governance HUBs:- Development of a Primary economic sector (Agricultural HUB) for a defined region with development of a Township or smart city which includes infrastructures such as Residential complexes, Official and Industrial Facilities, Disaster Management System, Power and Water, Sewage and Solid Waste Management, Telecom, Banking, Educational Institutes, Transport facilities and infrastructures, Healthcare, Hospitality Sectors, Retail Market for all including food grains and fruits & vegetables, and other subsidiary Sector.
Secured Governance Compliments the present Public Private Participation (PPP) developmental model by ensuring balanced participation of the private and public sector taking advantage of value and valuation of infrastructure thereby yielding higher returns. This valuation of infrastructure, which grows many folds need to be shared by the society and by the Government to support infrastructure development, ensuring balanced growth. It facilitates an equal opportunity for Private sector and Government to work together with a single window clearance system to achieve greater results to bring National progress with profitability to the participating organizations.
Turning Wasteland into Various Sectoral HUBs for a Sustainable Economic Growth
Due to lack of irrigation, or unfavorable climate, some lands are not cultivated and are categorized as either culturable or unculturable wastelands. culturable wastelands include gullied and / or ravenous land, undulating upland, surface waterlogged land and marsh, salt affected land, shifting cultivation area, degraded forest area, degraded non-forest plantation, sandy area, mining and industrial wasteland, and pasture and grazing lands. Compared to this, unculturable wastelands include barren, rocky, stony wastes, sheet rock area, steep sloping area and snow covered and / or glacial area.
People friendly action programme helps local people and organisations in rehabilitating and improving the degraded lands. The wasteland in India which has been abandoned can be transformed into agricultural HUB for sustainable economic growth. The state government will be responsible for providing the necessary public facilities, while private enterprises and knowledge institutes invest and erect the real estate and the use of public space for critical sectors and other socio – economic activities near the HUB.
Now days, India’s acute housing shortage and rapid urbanization have prompted many economists to prefer more farmland available for housing. This loss of farmland is a direct result of remarkable success in economic development over the past two decades, which has resulted in rapid urbanization and the conversion of enormous amounts of farmland into residential, industrial, commercial, infrastructure and institutional uses. But we need to consider the negative side of farmland losses in this country. The farmland loss may not seem significant in the short term, but added up over the course of decades these losses could have serious effects on the resource base for our food supply. If continued, these high rates of high-productivity farmland loss will have significant impacts over the annual yields of agriculture production.
Negative consequences with conversion of farmland include loses in food production, environmental benefits, and social benefits. With today’s level of agricultural surpluses in this country it is hard to argue that the current rates of farmland conversion will be detrimental to our food supply. However, this may change in the future. Other negative consequences of farmland conversion include reductions in environmental and social benefits.
These environmental benefits include flood control, air quality, habitat for wildlife and native vegetation, and groundwater recharge areas. Social benefits provided by farmland include open space and scenery as well as recreational opportunities such as hunting, fishing, hiking, and photography. Farms make up an important foundation of many regions tourist industry.
Socio – Economic Impacts of Land – Use Changes
- Conversion of farmland and forests to urban development reduces the amount of land available for food and timber production;
- Soil erosion, salinization, desertification, and other soil degradations associated with agricultural production and deforestation reduce land quality and agricultural productivity;
- Conversions of farmland and forests to urban development reduce the amount of open space and environmental amenities for local residents;
- Urban development reduces the “critical mass” of farmland necessary for the economic survival of local agricultural economies;
- Urban development patterns not only affect the lives of individuals, but also the ways in which society is organized;
- Urban development has encroached upon some rural communities to such an extent that the community’s identify has been lost;
- Suburbanization intensifies income segregation and economic disparities among communities;
- Excessive land use control, however, may hinder the function of market forces;
- Land use regulations that aim at curbing land development will raise housing prices, making housing less affordable to middle– and low–income households;
- Land use regulation must strike a balance between private property rights and the public interest.
Population growth, living space and transport infrastructure are considered signs of a country’s prosperity, but they also come at a cost, especially for the environment. We can assume every second one square metre of land is lost to development as new houses, factories, train tracks, roads and other types of infrastructure are built.
So with secured governance new strategies have been formulated to make better use of the land. One of these is the transformation of wasteland into HUB development. The wastelands represent a huge opportunity for infrastructure development. “To carry out these transformations, which we hope will serve as models; the image of those HUBs has had to change too. Urban centres have made huge efforts to improve their quality of life and become economic growth centres.
There are a total of 736 districts in 2020, up from 640 in 2011 census and 593 in 2001. There are around 6 lakh villages in India.
The technology of ICT has opened up more opportunities for businesses in agriculture, also known as “agribusiness” to expand locally and internationally. Today, agribusiness is operated via the Web through the use of the Internet technology and facilities. Thus, with the new technology, it is possible for stakeholders in the agricultural sector to communicate and exchange information between the locals and internationals. The stakeholders are thus known as “agri-community.” One mini HUB would be built up in each district of India and Nano HUBs for all villages. Although farmers have traditional knowledge and expertise in cultivating crops, they lack knowledge of modern trends in production and marketing. More than the production and productivity the farmer needs returns on his investments. Towards this, knowledge on marketing and trade practices are essential. The agricultural HUB, Mini HUB and Nano HUBs will provide him information on this:
- Implementation of good agricultural practices through live demos, use of modern labour saving equipment & machinery;
- Production of world class products which could find ready market even outside the country meeting their phyto sanitary requirements;
- Reduction of production costs enabling the local producers to compete in the world market;
- This is accomplished through provision of education material in local languages
- There will be local monitoring through progressive farmers identified among them, who will be constant touch with the providers of the agricultural HUBs;
- A help line created exclusively for this purpose to serve the speedy communication process.
In short, agriculture sector in Maharashtra have been in acute distress notonly because of long term policy fatigue of new economic reforms but also lack ofequilibrium between policy changes and awareness regarding policy changeamong farming community. The government has been controlledprices of agriculture produce through MSP and export duties for controlling theinflation, but prices of agriculture inputs are according to international market.This dual role of government adversely affects agriculture sector in India. Thisdiplomatic policy should stop by government and try to develop unorganisedsector.
Moreover, declining performance of banking sector in rural area,increasing indebtedness, increasing natural hazards, social customs, addiction ofalcohol, limited extension of irrigation, large number of marginal and smallfarmers‟ and low level of income generated through unviable land are majorresponsible factors for farmers‟ suicide in Maharashtra. It is indeed, farmer’scommunity is always worked hard, but they could not get proper return of efforts.
- Puts the emphasis on methods and processes that improve soil productivity while minimizing harmful effects on the climate, soil, water, air, biodiversity and human health;
- Aims to minimise the use of inputs from nonrenewable sources and petroleum-based products and replace them with those from renewable resources;
- Focuses on local people and their needs, knowledge, skills, socio-cultural values and institutional structures;
- Ensures that the basic nutritional requirements of current and future generations are met in both quantity and quality terms. Provides long-term employment, an adequate income and dignified and equal working and living conditions for everybody involved in agricultural value chains.
- Reduces the agricultural sector’s vulnerability to adverse natural conditions (e.g. climate), socioeconomic factors (e.g. strong price fluctuations) and other risks;
- Fosters sustainable rural institutions that encourage the participation of all shareholders and promote the reconciliation of interests.
- Connect the research lab to the field – very difficult to grow without the aid of modern scientific research;
- Pay attention to resource-use efficiency—in water and fertilizers;
- Restructure the agriculture marketing framework;
- Farmers need to know about better seeds, proper use of fertilizers and should get access to better technologies.
- Provide alternative revenue source to farmers as it is difficult to earn a living from small pieces of farm land;
Government has taken initiative for preventing farmers‟ suicide but effortsmade by them are little compared to intensity of issue. Consequently, the issues of farmers‟ suicide have become more serious day by day in Maharashtra. Manyeconomists also suggests that financial support made by government to victimfamilies cannot solve the problem of farmers‟ suicide, but structural changes in theagricultural sector through policy decision is essential to increase confidenceamong the farmers community in India. Similarly, infrastructural facilities are inweak position. These facilities should be improved, upgraded according to the newtrends of marketing and demand supply pattern of the world.
By DR. Vivek Damle,
Chairman, Savida Agricom Pvt. Ltd
Dr. P. Sekhar,
Chairman of Micro Tech Global Foundation & Global Smart Cities Panel