Among children and women, Anaemia continues to be a major concern as more than half of the children and women are found anaemic in almost 14 states and UTs, according to the survey findings of phase two of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5).
On Wednesday, the government presented the factsheets of key indicators on population, reproductive and child health, family welfare, nutrition, and others for the country as well as 14 states and UTs, stated under phase two of the 2019 to 2021 NFHS-5 here.
The states and UTs that were surveyed in this particular phase were Arunachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, NCT of Delhi, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand, stated by a Health Ministry in a statement.
At the national level, anaemia among children and women was present to be the same as in the 14 states and UTs. The findings for the national level were calculated by taking data from phase one and phase two of the NHFS-5.
In December 2020, the findings of phase one of the NFHS-5 for 22 states and UTs were presented.
Child nutrition indicators presented a little improvement at all where levels dropped from 38% to 36%, wasting from almost 21% to 19%, and underweight from 36% to 32%, according to the findings.
In all phase two states and UTs, the condition improved of child nutrition, but the change was not too significant as major changes in respect of these indicators are unlikely in a short time period, the statement added.
“Anaemia among children and women continues to be a cause of concern. More than half of the children and women (including pregnant women) are anaemic in all the phase two states and UTs and all-India level compared to NFHS-4, in spite of the substantial increase in the composition of iron-folic acid (IFA) tablets by pregnant women for 180 days or more,” it added.
Absolute breastfeeding to children below the age of six months of age has shown improvement in the all-India levels from 55% in 2015-16 to 64% in 2019-21. All the states and UTs of phase two are also showing good progress, it added.
There is a rise from 51% to 58% of women that receives the recommended four or more ANC visits by health providers at the national level, the findings said.
Also, except Punjab, all phase two states have shown improvement between 2015-16 to 2019-20.
Institutional births have raised from 79% to 89% at the national level. Institutional delivery is 100% in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry and more than almost 90% in 7 states and UTs out of 12 phases two states and UTs, the statement added.
It also said that along with a rise in institutional births there has also been a rise in C-section deliveries in many states and UTs specifically in private health facilities.
“Unmet needs of family planning have witnessed a significant decline from 13 percent to 9 percent at the all-India level and in most of the phase two states and UTs,” according to the findings.
The unmet need for spacing which stayed as a crucial issue in the nation in the past has come down to less than 10% in all the states, except for Jharkhand which is 12%, Arunachal Pradesh which is 13%, and Uttar Pradesh which is 13% as well.
Complete immunization drive among children aged 12-23 months have recorded a substantial improvement from 62% to 76% at the national level.
Also, it is noted that 11 out of 14 states and UTs have more than three-fourth of children who are aged 12-23 months with complete immunization, and it is the highest for Odisha at 90%, stated by the statement.
The Total Fertility Rate (TFR), which is the average no of children per woman has further come down from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level and in all 14 states and UTs. All phase two states have gained replacement level of fertility (2.1), except for Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh, it added.
Overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has raised from 54% to 67% at the national level and in almost all phase two states and UTs, except for Punjab. The use of modern methods of contraceptives has also been raised in almost all states and UTs, according to the statement.
“Women’s empowerment indicators portray considerable improvement at the all-India level and across all 14 states and UTs. Significant progress has been recorded between NFHS-4 and NFHS-5 with respect to women operating bank accounts from 53 percent to 79 percent at all-India level,” it added.
For example, in the case of Madhya Pradesh, there was a rise from 37% to 75%. More than 70% of women in almost every state and UT in the second phase have operational bank accounts.
The main reason for successive rounds of the NFHS is to give reliable and comparable data related to family and health welfare and other issues, the ministry stated in the statement.
The NFHS-5 survey work has been conducted in around 6.1 lakh sample households from 707 districts (as on March, 2017) of the country.