India is a maritime nation, and the country sitsastride a large number of busy InternationalShippingLanes that crisscross the Indian Ocean. About 90% ofour trade by volume and70% by value is transportedover the seas. For a rapidly growing economy seekingnew markets worldwide, the volume of maritime tradewill only grow in times to come.India’s economic resurgence is directly linkedto her overseas trade and energy needs, most of whichare transported by sea. Mercantile trade constitutesa substantial portion of India’s GDP and is likely to increase in the future. Maintenance of a secure maritime environment which enables unhindered pursuit ofeconomic activities is, therefore, essential for the overalleconomic development and security of the country.
The full range of operations in which a nation’s Naval forces may be involved is vast, ranging from high-intensity warfighting at one end to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations at the other. This broad continuum of operations can be broken down into distinct roles, each demanding a specific approach to the conduct of operations.The essence of all navies is their military character. In fact, the raison d’etre (reason for being) of navies is to ensure that no hostile maritime power degrades own national security and interests. The Navie’s military role is characterised by threat or use of force at and / or from the sea. This includes application of maritime power in both – offensive operations against enemy forces, territory and trade, and defensive operations to protect own forces, territory and trade. The military role is performed through accomplishment of specific military objectives, missions and tasks.
The Indian Navy is the maritime arm of the Indian armed forces; it protects and securesthe Indian maritime borders. It also protects Indian shipping in the Indian Ocean region.It is one of the world’s largest Navies in terms of both personnel and Naval vessels.India has a rich maritime heritage that dates back thousands of years. The beginning ofIndia’s maritime history dates to 3000 BC. During this time, the inhabitants ofIndus Valley Civilisation had maritime trade link with Mesopotamia.The discovery of a tidal dock at Lothal in Gujarat is proof of India’s ancient maritimetradition. The mention of the Department of Navadhyaksha or Superindent of Ships inKautilya’s treatise Arthasastra highlights the development of maritime commerce. Theancient Tamil empire of the Cholas in the south, and the Marathas and the Zamorins ofKerala during the 16th and 17th centuries maintained Naval fleets. You have read aboutall this in the previous lesson on ‘Ancient Armies.
The East India Company came under the British Crownon 01 May 1830 and acquired combatant status. It was named as Her Majesty’sIndian Navy in 1858. In 1863, it was reorganised into two branches; one atBombay and the other at Calcutta, as the Bombay Marine and the Bengal MarineThereafter, it was called The Royal Indian Navy (RIN), under the British rule. By the end of the war, its strength had risen to 117 combatvessels and 30,000 personnel who had seen action in various theatres ofoperations.On India attaining Independence, the Royal Indian Navy consisted of 32 ageingvessels suitable only for coastal patrol., with R Adm ITS Hall, CIE, being thefirst Post-independence Commander-in-Chief. After the independence of Indiaon 15 August 1947 and the ensuing partition, the RIN’s fleet of ships and remainingpersonnel were divided between the newly independent Union of India andDominion of Pakistan.The first engagement inaction of the Indian Navy was against the PortugueseNavy during the liberation of Goa in 1961. During the Goa liberations, OperationVijay, the Indian Navy supported troop landings and provided fire support. The 1962 Sino-Indian War was largely fought over the Himalayas and the Navy hadonly a limited role in the war. Indian Naval activity in the Indo-Pakistani War of1965 largely involved coastal patrols. During the war, the Pakistani Navy attackedthe Indian coastal city of Dwarka, although there were no military resources inthe area. India deployed Naval resources to patrol the coast and deter furtherbombardment.
The Indian Navie’s capabilities were best demonstrated during the Indo-PakistanWar of 1971.The navy successfully enforced a Naval blockade of West andEast Pakistan. Pakistan’s lone long-range submarine PNS Ghazi was sunk offthe coast of Visakhapatnam. On 4 December 1971, the Indian Navy successfullyexecuted Operation Trident, a devastating attack on the Pakistan NavalHeadquarters of Karachi that sank a mine sweeper; a destroyer and ammunitionsupply ship. The attack also damaged another destroyer and oil storage tanks atthe Karachi port. To commemorate this action, 4 December is celebrated as theNavy Day.
The full range of operations in which a nation’s Naval forces may be involved is vast,
ranging from high intensity war fighting to humanitarian assistance and disaster reliefoperations. This can be broken down into distinct roles. The four main roles of theIndian Navy are described in the following sections:
- Benign Role
The Naval air-arm is an important component of the Indian Navy, and it consists ofMiG-29Kjets and helicopters that operate from aircraft carriers. The Kamov-31operates from theaircraft carriers and provides airborne early warning cover for thefleet. In the anti-submarinerole the Sea King, Ka-28 and the Indian Dhruv are used.The Boeing P-8, Poseidon and the Ilyushin 38 carry out maritime patrol andreconnaissance operations. The UAV arm consists of the Heron and Searcher-IIs thatare operated from both surface ships and shore establishments for surveillance missions.
INS Kursura was commissioned at Riga, erstwhile USSR, on 18 December 1969 under thecommand of Commander A Auditto. The submarine embarked on her maiden passage fromBalrisk on 20th February 1970. The induction of INS Kursura showcased the augmentation of the 3rd dimension of the Indian Navy. She was the corner stone of foundation of Indian Naval Submarine Arm. During her 31 glorious year of service the submarine traversed 73,500 nautical miles participating in almost all types of Naval operations. INS Kursura played a vital role in the 1971 Indo-Pak war. She was the pioneer submarine extending goodwill and harmony through visits and flag-showing missions to other nations. In her vast life span, INS Kursura changed hands 13 times, the last Commanding Officer being Cdr KM Sreedharan. INS Kursura was decommissioned on 27th February 2001.After her decommissioning, Kursura has been converted into a submarine museum beached on RK Beach, Visakhapatnam.
The Strength of Indian Navy
List of active Indian Navy ships is a list of ships in active service with the Indian Navy. In service ships are taken from the official Indian Navy website.As of July 2021, the Indian Navy possesses 1 aircraft carrier, 1 amphibious transport dock, 8 Landing ship tanks, 10 destroyers, 13 frigates, 1 Nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, 16 conventionally powered attack submarines, 23 corvettes, 8 Landing Craft Utility, 10 large offshore patrol vessels, 5 fleet tankers and various auxiliary vessels and small patrol boats.
Why do we need a strong Navy?
India has a coastline of about 7500 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of over 2 million sq kms. In addition, we are endowed with abundant oceanic wealth comprising a large number of island territories and vast seabed area, over 97 % of our national trade is carried by sea routes! We must protect our natural wealth and keep our trade routes open in order to progress and per. It is therefore, imperative that India maintains a strong Navy which is always in a high state of preparedness.In times of distress and natural disaster such as floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes etc. The Navy is always called upon for rescue and relief operations. Little wonder then, the Indian Navy is so relevant to us all! And that also explains why the public hold a great deal of affections for the Navy and its officers and sailors.
Of all the diverse elements that go into the making of a strong and effective Navy, no single factor is as important as its men.
Challenges of Blue Economy
The potential to grow the blue economy is limited by a series of challenges.
- Overfishing because of technological improvements coupled with poorly managed access to fish stocks and rising demand.
- Habitat degradation due largely to coastal development, deforestation, mining, and unsustainable fishing practices as well as pollution, in the form of excess nutrients from untreated sewerage, agricultural run-off and marine debris such as plastics. Coastal erosion also destroys infrastructure and livelihoods.
- Climate change related phenomena — both slow onset events like sea level rise and more intense and frequent weather events. Long term climate change impact on ocean systems is fraught with uncertainty, but it is clear that changes in sea temperature, acidity, and major oceanic currents, among others, threaten marine life and habitats.
- Unfair trade: Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), zones in which a state has special rights over exploration and use of marine resources, are crucial to the economies of island states, and often dwarf their corresponding land mass and government’s administrative capacity.
- Ad hoc development: Unplanned and unregulated development in the narrow coastal interface and near shore areas have led to significant externalities between sectors, suboptimal siting of infrastructure, overlapping uses of land and marine areas, marginalization of poor communities, and loss or degradation of critical habitats.
- Lack of skilled labour and modern technical capacity.
- Lack of sufficient funds for Blue Economy operations.
Overcome the Blue Economy Challenges
A more systematic approach, based on a better understanding of nationally defined priorities, social context, and resource base, can guide sustainable and inclusive blue growth. Countries increasingly recognize that they need more knowledge about the biophysical characteristics, carrying capacity, synergies, or trade-offs between sectors to ensure an efficient and sustainable management of different activities.
Marine and coastal spatial planning and integrated maritime surveillance are needed to give authorities, businesses, and communities a better picture of what is happening in this unique space. Digital mapping of maritime and coastal space and natural assets can form the basis for cross-sector analysis and planning in order to prevent conflicts and avoid externalities.
Similarly, the growing science of data-limited stock assessments can provide critical information needed for improved fisheries management. In places such as South Africa and Indonesia, mobile technology is being tested to gather previously unavailable data, for example on fishery landings and fish stock health.
Coastal zones are among the areas most vulnerable to climate change and natural hazards. Risks include flooding, erosion, sea level rise as well as extreme weather events due to ad hoc development. The Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) seeks to coordinate the application of different policies affecting the coastal zone and maritime activities. ICZM is an iterative process which includes a variety of approaches, from mapping, delineation and demarcation of the hazard lines and coastal sediment cells, to building the capacity of agencies, institutions, and communities to make informed decisions about growing the blue economy within the carrying capacity of its living natural resource base.
Growing the blue economy requires assessing the value of marine resources. Not only are marine living resources poorly measured and understood, but they are also rarely valued properly.
Human Capital: Skilled labor is in high demand in all developing countries and highly relevant to the blue economy. Investment in the broader blue economy and in parallel skills training for fishers who can no longer make a decent living from the living aquatic resources can produce win-wins for economic development across sectors and make space for conservation.
Secured Governance (SG)
Secured Governance presents a vision of rapid economic development based on natural resource utilization and urban expansion through next five years. It prioritizes immediate development needs and the interests of coastal developers and extractive industries over the proactive preservation of ecosystem services. As the scenario was developed over time, it came to represent possible construction and development that could occur with minimal government investment. Substantial benefits are to be derived through this type of secured governance functions via many interacting mechanisms which define and control them.
Apart from the obvious benefits of additional revenue through coastal development, one major advantage is tremendous improvement in export and import of weapons in India. While refining valuation methods is going to lead to more rational coastal land-use decisions, it will design sustain additional revenue to department of Indian Navy and improve our understanding on the ecological–economic mechanisms that contribute to the value of our natural capital assets.
SG offers a strategy for the government to get all the basic infrastructure development with a negligible investment by the Government. It is a concept of developing Techno Economic Corridors connecting HUBs which will act as growth centre for individual sectors. The very concept of “Secured’’ here implies a secured convergence or knitting with various sectors defining a growth for an economy.
Viewing the marine environment as “natural capital” sets the framework for assessing how that environment contributes to human well-being and establishes that the marine environment is not just an amenity or an expendable aspect of coastal lives. A healthy marine ecosystem provides an irreplaceable foundation for fisheries, recreation, and tourism industries, as well as less recognized services such as waste processing, hydrological cycling, storm protection, and nutrient cycling – all of which contribute to the habitability of a place, the region, and the planet as a whole. The innovative blue economy is driven by business-level innovation using locally sourced resources, with a focus on job creation, building social capital and generating multiple cash flows by stimulating entrepreneurship and business-model innovation. Historically there has been a close correlation between economic growth and environmental degradation: as communities grow, so the environment declines. So, the various policy tools that have encouraged more sustainable production and consumption patterns. On the production side, this owes much to the research and development of environmentally sound technologies, fostered by environmental regulation. In addition, frequent dialogue, knowledge management, technology transfer, education, training, and capacity building must be developed so that sustainable industrial practices can spread throughout the world. Coastal plains are a geologic feature found on both the eastern and western coasts of India. The coastal area of India has the potential to generate multiple revenue streams. The market turns around money; money is thus a medium of exchange. Innovations that generate more market applications have greater appeal and are thus most likely to be embraced by established businesses and entrepreneurs. The opportunity to generate multiple revenues is a very attractive phenomenon since it mobilizes parallel investments for several niche markets. Nonetheless, these are still high-risk investments. The terms may not be appealing for the inventors but the need for cash may be so urgent that they accept an investment agreement. The capacity to reduce risk by generating more cash flow makes products and services competitive. This is how millions of sustainable jobs will be created, fundamentally shifting old model products and by-gone production methods to innovations and processes based on the scientific understanding of already benchmarked solutions that encourage the next generation to become innovators.
Scope of the Ocean Economy
The scope of the ocean economy varies considerably among countries. For example, in the United States we see six sectors and 26 categories whereas in Japan we see only three sectors but 33 categories. This is a reflection of the many different classification sectors and categories in different countries. In other words, one industry in one country is divided into several industries in another country.
Despite this disparity, we can identify the main scope and characteristics of some common industries:
Fisheries – generally consists of fishing, aquaculture, and seafood processing;
Marine Mining – all countries where marine mining exists include it in the ocean economy. Some countries include the salt industry while others separate it from marine mining.
Offshore Oil and Gas – Many countries with an offshore oil and gas industry include it in the ocean economy.
Ship and boat-building – all countries where ship and boat building exists include it in the ocean economy.
Marine Manufacturing – though the scope of marine manufacturing differs according to country, most include it in the ocean economy.
Marine Construction – all countries with a marine construction industry include it in the ocean economy.
Marine Transportation – all countries include marine transportation in the ocean economy, but some countries categorize marine transport-related services as separate industries.
Port – many countries integrate the port industry into marine transportation.
Marine Tourism – although all countries include marine tourism in the ocean economy, the industry is very complex. This makes it difficult to innumerate the differences in scope in the marine and costal tourism industry.
Marine Commerce: Marine financial services, marine legal services, marine insurance, ship finance & related services, charterers, media & publishing.
Maine ICT: Marine engineering consultancy, meteorological consultancy, environmental consultancy, hydro-survey consultancy, project management consultancy, ICT solutions, geo-informatics services, yacht design, submarine telecom etc.
Public Sectors such as education, national defense, R&D, and public administration – most countries include them in the ocean economy.
Ocean Renewable Energy:Offshore wind energy production, wave energy production, tidal energy production
Secured Governance Concept for additional revenue in Water based Network
India has navigable network length is 14,500 km, in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks. There are 6 waterways in 15 states with 70 terminals all over India waterways. Various surveys show that water-based activities are among the most popular recreation activities. Sometimes restricted zones are set up so that certain activities, such as fishing, do not interfere with other activities, such as swimming. Even a medium-sized hydropower project can have recreational and tourism value to residents and visitors, provide jobs for thousands, and have a monetary benefit in the crores of Indian Rupees.
The water-based group was dominated by young males who were involved in a wide variety of recreational activities, especially those based on water adventures. The learning and-passive group contained a majority of highly educated, older women who were most interested in learning and viewing about activities, and in participating in popular outdoor activities such as family gathering, picnicking, and walking. In order to improve planning and management for these participants, the survey provided recommendations for appropriate services and facilities at the recreation areas, formulated policies, and encouraged proper use of natural resources.
- There can be 3,000 mini-HUB will be formed near to navigable waterway network. It will act as a profit centre and provide employment to local community.
- Every 5-kilometer one mini-HUB such as amusement park, Yoga centre, Mini food court, Cinema halls, children’s water park etc.
- Moreover,mini-HUB includes Small scale economic activities like food processing industry, boat & fish net repairing centre, mini market, shopping malls etc.
Local government will get additional revenue through this various mini-HUBs to meet extra budget burden of river maintenance (includes deepening, cleaning etc.) expenditure.
Secured Governance Strategy plan for Islands
India is blessed with 1,382 individual islands in that Smart City Scheme is an ambitious economic development programme aimed at consolidating the international business and financial HUB by creating ideal conditions for working, living, and spurring investment through the development of smart cities. It provides technology-driven facilities to the business community and creates a vibrant city lifestyle. Smart city concepts demand a change in lifestyle and can only be successful if the people are willing to adapt to this new lifestyle. The social and cultural settings in islands are known to be different; islanders often have a unique lifestyle shaped by various factors such as physical isolation, size etc. Therefore, if authorities want to create smart islands, they need the people to be among the most important stakeholders, that is, they need the people to want to live in a smart island.
Blue Economy is comparatively unexplored in terms of its economic potential and long-term developmental programme of the world. Island could be one of the major destinations in the journey of creating smart sustainable city. Islands could be allocated to develop tourism HUBs & Smart Cities for sustainable Economic development to meet financial obligation of India.
These smart city projects would require huge capital investment initially that could be brought about by public private partnerships for developing sustainable smart cities. The smart cities in Island will help the Indian Economy to provide long term funding and more employment opportunities in future.
Optimum and efficient utilization of water resources is at the core of blue economy. Singapore is a group of Islands without natural resources. Even it is to be a leader in implementing the smart city concept and moves to be a smart Nation. In India there are more than 1,200 Islands with abundant natural resources and beautiful scenery. Some of these islands are equal or even larger in size of Singapore. These islands could be leased out by the central government to state governments for smart city development and other economic activities, based on the population of the state. Every Island would be one of blue economy resources which facilitates greater use of untapped economic growth in a much bigger way, in turn, may raise the contribution of smart city development to the major portion of economy. Development of smart city projects with private capital through Public Private Participation (PPP) route has become one of the commonly acquired procurement strategies in developed and developing countries. The development of smart cities in Islands would be opening up a plethora of investment opportunities. The Smart City Scheme provides an enabling framework and a package of attractive fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to investors for the development of smart cities across the island. Even it would be new initiative to stimulate innovative scientific and technological activities, provide technology-driven facilities to the business community and create a vibrant city lifestyle.
The Smart City development would be an ambitious economic development programme aimed at consolidating the international business and financial HUB by creating ideal conditions for working, living and spurring investment across the island. Islands have great potentialities in smart city development; it will accelerate employment opportunities, promote local economic growth and create an effective roadmap that derogates the financial obligations of States and Union Territories of India.
Social Benefit: Conceptually, helps people in areas of HUBs, Mini HUBs & Micro HUBs, thus allowing greater access to employment and other productive opportunities. Increase output such as tourism and other allied services or facilities in the region, which reflects into an improvement in living standards.
Economic Benefit: Facilitate innovation and new ideas in the water-based region of India. Significantly increase the land values and economic growth. Stimulate investment from Private stakeholder and foreign investors for the next five years would be around INR. 1.5 lakh cr. and create 20 million new job opportunities and business opportunities for local. Around 3.6% of private investment would be additional revenue to Government of India.
The raising importance of the Blue Economy in global activities represents a great opportunity for innovation, be it in coastal management, navigation assistance or biodiversity protection. The Blue Economy represents an opportunity to boost the local economy and create jobs in knowledge intensive economic sectors. The creation of new services are really need in order to better tackle the challenges faced by coastal regions and inland water bodies to achieve their unleash business opportunities and boost the local economy. Both local and regional authorities should therefore not hesitate in investing even more into the adoption of innovative technologies. It is indispensable to promote and enhance collaboration between the various actors of the value-chain to develop strong and vibrant local economies.
Value and Valuation of the Blue Economy allied projects will make it a self-sustaining mechanism while bringing unprecedented growth and development for the region.
Commander Vijay Vadhera, (Veteran)
President Navy Foundation, Mumbai Chapter
Dr. P. Sekhar, Chairman,
Unleashing India, Global Smart City Panel & MTGF