Security is a cornerstone of development and progress in a free society. A basic and widespread understanding of the importance of security as a guarantee of citizens’ well-being and the stability of the nation itself is therefore essential. The National Security Plan is a SecurityStrategy and as an instrument of its time, it reflects the risks and threats that need to be addressed in a world undergoing profound and constant change. It takes a broad view of the concept of security, in accordance with these global changes which affect the nation and citizens’ daily lives.
National Security is defined comprehensively and broadly and is conceived as a public service subject toa State Policy, which requires the collaboration of society as a whole. Under the direction and leadership of the Prime Minister, National Security is the responsibility of the Government and involves all the Public Authorities. Societies that take responsibility for their security are freer societies. Security, as an essential component in defending constitutional values and achieving the ideals of justice, prosperity, and progress, is a cornerstone of the preservation, stability, and continuity of the country, as well as of the lives and well-being of its citizens. The concept of security has evolved in keeping with global changes in order to address the growing challenges posed by the circumstances of the world we live in.
Critical Infrastructure in National Prosperity
Well-designed infrastructure is an essential driver of national prosperity and is a prerequisite for economic expansion and for future growth to occur. Infrastructure enables a nation’s productivity, quality of life, and economic progression by driving growth, creating jobs, and improving productivity, quality of life and efficiency. It underpins growth by providing the supporting networks upon which we all rely.
Networked infrastructure, such as transportation and communications, boost long-term economic output because they provide benefits to other sectors, such as improved business efficiency, effective mechanisms to coordinate and manage supply chains and product delivery. Resilient and dependable networks enable business confidence which leads to increased business investment and growth and the creation of new economic opportunities.
The national security plan studied generally adopts a risk management approach to critical infrastructure protection. This approach helps governments to identify key security assets, assess risks and establish strategies and priorities for mitigating these risks. Generally, the risk management strategy involves measures to be taken in the following areas: prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. The plans seek to improve coordination among relevant agencies and with private sector operators of critical infrastructure facilities in order to manage risks associated with critical infrastructure.
Inter-dependence is a major challenge for risk management in critical infrastructure. This is because economies and societies rely on interdependent and inter-connected infrastructure systems. This gives presenter Alia to a phenomenon known as “cascading events” – that is, once one disruption occurs, others are likely to follow within systems and processes that are connected to the infrastructure affected by the initial disruption. Because of the “all-hazards” approach to risk management and the inter-dependence of infrastructure systems, critical infrastructure protection necessarily involves diverse actors. These include many different government agencies from different levels of government, as well as international organizations. Private operators of critical infrastructure facilities are also important participants in all phases of critical infrastructure protection. It also requires a range of expertise.
Importance of Security Coverage of India
We are facing security challenges that respect no borders and can arise from any part of the world and can spread anywhere. Today, India is confronted with more unpredictable multi-dimensional threats including terrorism, international criminal networks, pandemic disease, natural and manmade disasters and many more. Unfortunately, cybercrime has evolved into an international criminal business that monetizes confidential data, orchestrates highly targeted, organized attacks and has the intention of causing widespread chaos and panic. However, the magnitude, trajectory, complexity, and virulence of such violent threats have increased to demoniac proportions that lead to severe and serious complications in the internal security dynamics of the country.
There is a perceived change in attitudes of public security due to ever-evolving threat matrix and ever-widening threat landscape including ongoing terror attacks, extremism, insurgencies, cyber-attacks, and disasters taken place in different parts of India. Moreover, today, we have come to live in an era characterized by the rise of sinister non-state forces which has redefined the process of security responses in India and the world as a whole. Moreover, any threat, compromise or exploitation of the Critical Infrastructure & Key Resources (CIKR)could have a devastating impact on our national security, economic stability and the public at large. Hence, safeguarding these infrastructures and overall security is an utmost concern for our government and businesses globally. Therefore, the notion of security has been transformed from an administrative subject to a business continuity issue. In addition, security plays a stellar role in bringing automation in the working of the organization, quality of human life, preserving the freedom and way of life of citizens of any nation.
Government and Private Partnership in National Security Plan
The security of our nation is the first duty of government. It is the foundation of our freedom and our prosperity. The central government has been responsible for the collective development of this National Security Strategy and for the associated strategic Defence and Security Review which builds on it. Public-private partnerships are an essential role of discussion in security businesses and government agencies concerned with the NationalSecurity Plan.
Government institutions must also play a central role in formulating national security plans in India. The state government plays a major role to protect and promote national security goals and objectives. National security in the context of the nation needs to be viewed not only in military terms but also in terms of internal security, economic security, technological modernization, and improvement. Even co-ordination in private intelligence collection and tasking of intelligence agencies so as to ensure that intelligence is focused on areas of concern for national safety.
The Government has quickly reacted to this shift and is taking initiatives to reorganize the country’s resources from a traditionally government-oriented format into a public-private coalition. Government aiming to facilitate need-based Public-Private Relationships that will allow participation by leaders from Indo-World Governments, Industry & Academia not only to address the issue of threats to our internal security but also to tackle homeland security in India. The Public-Private partnership will also create a suitable platform for international companies to invest heavily in our security market with business incentives to overcome both tariff & non-tariff barriers to reap benefits.
Special Solar Street Light Poles used to mount CCTV for Security Blanket
Previously, the security cameras would need to be hardwired into a monitoring station in order to provide real-time surveillance of the areas. Now, the cameras can be outfitted with wireless technology in order to transmit the surveillance signals to the monitoring station. This can be accomplished through direct radio transmission to the monitoring station or through a wireless mesh system. Often times, the electrical grid is either unavailable or cost-prohibitive in such locations. This provides the ideal opportunity to utilize stand-alone solar power.
Unique Solar Street Lighting is a great opportunity for cities to meet both challenges that eliminating some of the dark spots in the cities and retrofitting CCTV installations with solar panels and sensors for smart monitoring and implementation.
Technological Partnership must be established with an effort aimed at developing and advancing technologies for homeland security and military use. This program will help countries have limited financial, human, and other resources available for homeland security. Winning the new security challenges that we face will require international collaboration in researching, developing, and sharing homeland security technologies. It will facilitate greater cooperation, spreading research and development (R&D) costs, and taking advantage of synergies among the nations and thus, can extend the impact of their homeland security programs, entice businesses and entrepreneurs with larger numbers of potential customers, and take advantage of the continuing internationalization of the global market for security technologies.
The most crucial aspect, however, is that the import of security equipment ‘supplies technology’ but does not transfer technology. Even in cases of a contractual obligation for the transfer of technology, the seller does not does transfer the ability to upgrade the technology when the need arises. The problem gets further complicated particularly when the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) happens to be only an ‘integrator’ as highlighted above, which is a growing phenomenon in security technology. This again is amply proved by the Indian experience. It is true that the country does gain some technical skills through import, is able to build up its security capability and gains certain respectability in its international dealings. Almost all major security equipment is of foreign origin, and as when even up-gradation is considered the original suppliers have to be involved. Therefore Transfer Technology Process has to be simplified.
Governmental major Security challenges in Urban Area
- Awareness has increased among Indian citizens;
- Constant growth in infrastructure development in various critical sectors;
- It is mandatory to install CCTV cameras in Public & business places;
- The provision for the safety and economic well – being business;
- The rapid rise of smart city concept in Indian cities.
With approximately 85% (tentatively) of the nation’s critical infrastructures are under private sector control, alliances between government and business are essential for NationalSecurity. The central government will be work on threat and vulnerability analyses, national and local-level coordination with businesses and government agencies, and risk mitigation. The central government and private sector representatives exchange information and coordinate critical infrastructure protection activities at the state level. Public space is needed to be secured by a government that is generally open and accessible to people. It includes roads (including the pavement), public squares, parks, and beaches that are typically considered public space. In order to secure and protect CIKR of India against any natural or manmade disasters, a huge sum of money has to be invested through Public-Private – Partnership (PPP). Therefore, it is important to have an order of estimates of security expenditure for both public and private entities towards securing the nation. To ensure we meet our national security objectives and fulfill our public safety obligations a concerted whole-of-government and private effort with a huge investment will be required on both these fronts over the next five years. The detailed sector-wise cost of estimation for security coverage in India is given below this table:
By Mr. Aditya Sekhar
Research Scholar in Smart Cities& Electronic Security System